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"The world needed John Brown and John Brown came, and time will do him justice." Frederick Douglass (1886)

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Tuesday, October 30, 2018

A John Brown Ambrotype Goes to Auction


Ninth Plate Ambrotype of Abolitionist John Brown on Cowan's Auction

October 30-31, 2018
Period copy of the famous 1857 half plate daguerreotype taken by Whipple and Black in Boston and curated at the Boston Athenaeum. Housed in full pressed paper case.
Image has some tarnish and discoloration present around edge where mat meets image, along with some spotting to upper portion of image. Case with heavy wear to spine and moderate wear to edges.

For more information or to bid, visit Cowan's here

Monday, October 22, 2018

John Brown and Jerome Savonarola

Brown in jail
Savonarola's study
          It is noteworthy that the fiery Italian monk, Girolamo Savonarola—in many respects a controversial figure in European church history, not only has had the benefit of many different biographies and studies, but also the focus of the late Donald Weinstein, an eminent scholar who wrote his first biography of the monk in 1970.  After years of studying Savonarola and the religious, social, and political context of Renaissance Italy, Weinstein not only produced other books relating to his favorite subject, but another biography of Savonarola in 2011.  During the forty years between his first and second biographical studies, Weinstein undoubtedly perceived issues of depth and dimension that do not readily come from a first book’s labor—no matter how skilled and insightful the writer may be. 
Girolamo Savonarola

            Weinstein notes how Savonarola represents the medieval period but transitioned to the Renaissance, and was both “embraced and exalted” by the latter. He observed that in the span of his studies, he gradually “arrived at a new understanding of Fra Girolamo and his reception. "In so doing I had to discard the conventional labels that distort him and also to reject the practice of freezing history into such hard and fast designations as ‘Middle Ages’ and ‘Renaissance.’” After studying Savonarola for forty years, Weinstein concluded that the monk had been limited by “historical labels” and “the limitation of moral judgments—such as ‘saint,’ ‘fanatic,’ ‘charlatan,’ and ‘demagogue’—in explaining the behavior and ideas of charismatic figures.”  He also came to appreciate “the complex psychological, social, political and ideological reasons behind peoples’ belief in and rejection of their heroes and leaders."*
Execution of Savonarola by
Stefano Ussi (late 19th C.)
      This is an extremely helpful insight for the John Brown student too.  First, one cannot help but recognize the benefits of a life-long scholarship for any subject.  Brown has suffered from too many one-time biographies and studies--I call them "drive-by" efforts--by writers, whether academic or journalistic.  Some are notable works—some notably good, others notably bad, but they are often the only work the writer does on Brown before moving on to another topic. In the 19th century, only Franklin B. Sanborn devoted decades of reflection and writing on Brown, although his work is often diminished—and sometimes unnecessarily so—by scholars as having been partisan to the point of adoration.  Boyd B. Stutler, a life-long researcher and authority on John Brown, never produced his much-needed biography (or at least, the manuscript never made it to press).  Richard O. Boyer sadly died before he could write the second volume of his planned two-volume study of the abolitionist.  

Execution of John Brown
      I recently saw a video where it was remarked that there a profuse amount of scholarship on John Brown.  This is hardly the case in comparison to Abraham Lincoln or the military history of the Civil War.  Given his antebellum profile, Brown is not a minor historical figure and actually he merits far more--and far better--scholarship.  Consider how many thousands of books have been written about Lincoln. Despite Lincoln's importance, one might almost suggest that there is too much writing about him; but the same cannot be said about Brown.  What Lincoln has enjoyed, and what Brown deserves, is an extended, in depth, and well-developed biographical focus by scholars.  

            With exceptions here and there, many writers on the John Brown them traditionally privileged the same old sources and anecdotes without exploring (to borrow from Weinstein’s model) how Brown represents the colonial and post-colonial era, and yet has been both “embraced and exalted” by the modern era—not to mention, scorned and attacked too. And, if Savonarola has been victimized by “historical labels,” John Brown has more so been saddled with everything from “saint” and “fanatic” to “mad man” and “terrorist.”  None of these labels can accurately Brown’s life and actions, especially those that demean his sanity and criminalize him. Certainly, too, an extended and reflective study of John Brown necessarily entails coming to terms with “the complex psychological, social, political and ideological reasons” underlying people’s often strong response to Brown, either for him or against him.--LD

       *See “Donald Weinstein—On his book, Savonarola: The Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Prophet. Cover Interview of February 29, 2012,” Rorotoko (New York). Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2q4ThZd.

A John Brown-Savonarola Parallel from The Topeka Daily Capital, 23 June 1882, p. 3

Sunday, October 07, 2018

Rich Smyth's Where Are They Now? RICHARD REALF


Every month John Brown the Abolitionist Blog will be featuring an installment of Rich Smyth's "Where Are They Now?"  Thanks go to Rich for sharing from his extensive quest and study of the final resting places of John Brown's associates and contemporaries.--LD

Richard Realf was a poet journalist and correspondent for several eastern newspapers who helped plan the raid on Harper's Ferry. His life consisted of adventure, vagrancy, idealism and romance. An Abolitionist, above all he was a romantic. Realf: June 14th 1832 - Oct. 28th 1878.
Some of John Brown’s contemporaries and even today’s historians label Realf a traitor to the Abolitionist cause. After Brown’s execution Realf was arrested and testified before the Senate Committee Investigating the Attack at Harper's Ferry, which resulted in what would become known as the Mason Report. Realf named names and in a private letter was critical of Brown.1
Richard Realf (Library of Congress)
Growing up in England as a young child protégée in poetry, he was introduced into upper class English society. In 1853 Lady Byron, wife of George Gordon (Lord) Byron assisted Richard in obtaining training in estate management by having him apprentice on one of her land holdings in Leichestershire.2 
Lady Byron’s nephew was the current steward of the property and Richard lived with the family.  Caroline Noel a young blue-eyed, blond had come to live with her uncle, the current steward, after both her parents succumbed to diphtheria.3
Soon, Richard (21 years old) and Caroline (14 years old) were meeting in the library at night. They held hands, kissed and exchanged locks of hair, his dark, hers – honey blond.4 

One day on the way back from a local fair, the two stopped in the forest and it was from that encounter that Caroline became pregnant.5
Regardless of protests that he loved her and wished to marry her, he was forced to leave the estate and not return.
Though he would never forget his first love, he left Europe dejectedly, for the United States.
Arriving in New York, he worked as a missionary in a lower Manhattan Bowery slum before joining a party of free-state emigrants to Kansas, where he became a journalist and correspondent for several eastern newspapers.
It was in Kansas that Richard met John Brown accompanying him to Canada where he was to be secretary of state in Brown’s provisional government.

When John Brown launched his raid on Harpers Ferry in October, 1859, Realf was in Texas.  He was arrested as an accomplice and sent to Washington, D.C., where he testified before the committee investigating the raid.
During the Civil War (1862) he enlisted in the 88th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment. On June 10th 1865 he married Sophia Emily Graves whom he met in Indiana. While he was away they communicated frequently and appeared to be very much in love. But, during the course of his travels, he met a belle of Washington society and was smitten. When the war ended, he moved to the capitol where he was also commissioned in a colored regiment until mustering out in 1866. He never saw Sophia again. 6
Sophia died in October 1882 at the age of 52 in Merriville, Indiana. 7

On October 26th 1867 he married Catherin (or Catherine) Cassidy of Rochester, New York. Realf later claimed to have been intoxicated during the ceremony to Catherin. This marriage was a nightmare for Realf and he filed for divorce. One writer, who did not have nice things to say about the wife, classified Catherin as a prostitute. 8
Winsor House (1892) which was located on
the SW corner of 9th and Washington Streets
(Oakland Public Library, Oakland History
Room and Maps Division
In 1868 he established a school for freedmen in South Carolina.

His third marriage (between 1871-1875) was a common law marriage to Elizabeth "Lizzie" Whappen (AKA Eliza Wapham “1846-1926”) who bore him four children. Only later did he learn that his divorce from Catherin did not go through and he was still legally married to her. A bit crazed and knowing Catherin would cause him and his family trouble, he fled to San Francisco and rented a room with a family named Meade on Mission Street while working at the U.S. mint. He hoped to bring Lizzie and the children west and escape the reaches of his second wife. 9

It is interesting to note that a few years after Richard’s death both Sarah Brown (daughter of John Brown) and her mother Mary obtained positions at the same mint.10 
One night upon returning to his room, he found Catherin Cassidy there. He immediately fled finding accommodations at the Winsor House in Oakland, California. He spent his last money for a bottle of laudanum and drank it in his room. Waiting for the poison to have its effect, he wrote a final poem on scraps of paper. The last lines (see below) were blurred by the poison which had numbed his hand. 
And all His arching skies were in eclipse.
He was a-weary, but he fought his fight
     And stood for simple manhood; and was joyed
To see the august broadening of the light.
     And new earths heaving heav'nward from the void.
He loved his fellows, and their love was sweet—
     Plant daisies at his head and at his feet.

The poison worked as intended and Realf died on October 28th 1878. Along with the poem was a letter to his friend Richard Josiah Hinton (Abolitionist and John Brown biographer) in which he issued the following request concerning Catherin Cassidy:
"On no account is the person calling herself my wife to be permitted to approach my remains. I should quiver with horror, even in my death, at her touch………I have had heavy burdens to bear, such as have sent stronger men than I reeling into hell. I have tried to bear them like a man, but can endure no more." 
He also wrote out his last will and testament:

Oakland, Cal. Oct. 28, 1878
“I, Richard Realf, poet, orator, journalist, workman, do hereby declare that I have deliberately accepted suicide as the only final relief from the incessant persecutions of my divorced wife… My poems and the MS of certain lectures to be found scattered promiscuously in my room, on the table, and in my trunk, are to be put in the possession of Gen. John F. Miller, who at his discretion will, or will not, surrender them to Col. R.J. Hinton, of the Post… But…she…who once bore my name, and who is now in San Francisco, must on no account be informed of the residence of my wife, who would be in constant danger…Now, God bless all. God pardon me as I pardon all. I love Gen. John F. Miller, Col. Tappan, Col. Hinton, Mr. Mariner Kent, John Finigan, E. Levy, Col. J.J. Lyon, and many others. 

“there is, or should be, a tied lock of hair in the form of a rude bracelet, lying on the bathroom window sill of my boarding house. I should be glad to have it placed around my wrist. 

Richard Realf”
The bracelet of blond hair, now a quarter of a century old was the gift of Richard’s first true love.  He had kept the relic through all his travels, his turmoil’s and other loves. To be buried with Caroline’s hair was his last request. The bracelet was placed with Realf in his grave.  Realf was originally buried in Grand Army of the Republic Cemetery plot 100F.  
He was reinterred in San Francisco National Cemetery on January 31, 1933, section OSA, row 72, grave #4, located in the Presidio of San Francisco, California.

Grave of Richard Realf (Source: Poems by Richard Realf, Poet. . .Soldier. . .Workman.
Edited with a memoir by Richard J. Hinton (1898)
Cemetery map showing location of Realf's grave (Source: John Brown-Boyd B. Stutler Collection, West Virginia Division of Culture and History (http://bit.ly/2y9U4wh)

Realf’s standard marble military marker indicates he was a lieutenant in the U.S. Colored Infantry. 
The address of the cemetery is 1 Lincoln Boulevard, Presidio of San Francisco. The cemetery is located in the northern section of San Francisco. From San Francisco International Airport, take Hwy. 101 North to San Bruno/Hwy. 380 exit to Highway. 280 North. Take 19th Ave., exit (approximately 50 yards from the Golden Gate Toll Plaza). Yield right to Lincoln Blvd. Turn left onto Lincoln Blvd. and continue to the corner of Lincoln and Sheridan Blvd’s.                                              
* The author has included information obtained from: Helen Delay, "Richard Realf, Poet and Soldier," The Home Monthly (8 May 1899), pp. 10-11.

--Rich Smyth


     1 James Redpath in his preface to his John Brown autobiography labeled Richard Realf a Judas.

     2 “A Passport to Hell, The Mystery of Richard Realf,” by George Rathmell, pp. 21-25.

     3 Ibid.

     4 Ibid

     5 Ibid

     6 Sophia received letters from Richard including the last one on February 24th 1866 saying he was on his way home after the war and mustering out. She never heard from or saw him again. In the 1880 census she was living with her younger sister Louisa Maria Graves and her husband Edwin Leigh Furness in Furnessville, Indiana. Sophia was 50 years old and teaching school.

     7 WikiTree has Sophia’s middle name as Jane and her year of death as 1883.

     8 John Stauffer, The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery Vol. 1, Vol. 7 by Junius P. Rodriguez, p. 543.

     9 Eliza Ann Whapham and Richard had four children; Richard (1875-1950), Alice (1878-?), Mabel (1878-?), and Minnie (1878-1971).

    10 Sarah obtained her position as assistant weigher in 1882 and was dismissed in 1884.